Albany 2015:Book of Abstracts
June 9-13 2015
©Adenine Press (2012)
Transformation of Sequences from Random into Functional in Primary Living Units
In present cells nucleotides and amino acids are linked together in heteropolymeric sequences, rich in bioinformation. The genetic code analysis suggests that an incessant search for enhanced performance is guided by an inherent logic of self-perfection (Wong and Xue, 2002); and it is in agreement with the âchoice with perspective principle and inevitable tendency to compression of bioinformation allowing the advancement of life. According to the theory of early molecular evolution, the very first genes may have been simple tandem repeats (Trifonov, 2004). They were complementary RNA chains, GCCn and GGCn; the codons GCC and GGC correspond to the first line of the Evolutionary Chart of Codons - the earliest step in the origin of life at its triplet stage.
The current concepts of the origin of life imply a gradual transition of random sequences spontaneously synthesized in prebiotic microsystems (protocells) into functional sequences in primary living units. However, these concepts do not explain the nature of this transition According to the author's inversion concept of life origin functional sequences arose in prebiotic microsystems due to thermodynamic inversion, characterized by the prevalence of free energy over entropic disorder in the system, this key transformation launching the biological processes (Kompanichenko, 2014). The inversion might occur only under far-from-equilibrium conditions in prebiotic (micro) systems oscillating around the bifurcation point. At this, fluctuations in the medium had to be optimal to maintain their oscillations. At the inversion moment, (physical) information of non-biological prebiotic systems acquires a new quality - the features of functionality, purposefulness, and control over the life processes, characteristic of biological information. In this way, there appears over-entropy (bio) information and over-entropy free (bio) energy circulating within microsystems and organizing them. Random sequences of amino acids and nucleotides re-assemble into functional sequences, being involved through nucleoprotein interaction into the bioinformation process resulted in the emergence of a genetic code. According to the proposed concept, oscillating three-dimensional prebiotic microsystems transformed into probionts in the conditions of a changeable hydrothermal medium of the early Earth.
The bioinformation process needs the highest level of organization, because every message in a biological system has its destination and produces a function in the right place, on the right time. Primary living units purposefully selected L-amino acids and D-sugars to interact in the sequences of functional proteins and nucleic acids, instead of the spontaneous D- and L-forms alternation in prebiotic microsystems. The mutations of initial codons (possibly GCC and GGC) occurred due to continuous oscillations of probionts around the bifurcation point, with the following stages of the codons evolution.
Trifonov, E.N. (2004). The triplet code from first principles. J Biomol Struct Dyn 22, 1-11.
Wong, J.T.F. & Xue, H. (2002). Self-perfecting evolution of heteropolymer building blocks and sequences as the basis for life. In: Palyi G., Zucci C., and Caglioti L. (eds) Fundamentals of Life. Elsevier, Paris, 473-494.
Vladimir N. Kompanichenko
Institute for Complex Analysis,