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Albany 2015:Book of Abstracts

Albany 2015
Conversation 19
June 9-13 2015
©Adenine Press (2012)

Tools for Mapping and Fixing the Brain

We are building tools to confront a fundamental challenge of the brain and other complex biological systems: their molecular building blocks are nanoscale in size and organized with nanoscale precision, but support physiological processes and computations that occur over macroscopic length scales. To enable the understanding and fixing of such complex systems, we are creating tools that enable molecular-resolution maps of large scale systems, as well as technologies for observing and controlling information processing in such systems. First, we have developed a method for super-resolution optical imaging that can image large 3-D preserved specimens, with nanoscale precision (Chen et al., 2015). We embed a specimen in a swellable polymer, which upon exposure to water expands isotropically in size, enabling conventional diffraction-limited microscopes to do large-volume nanoscopy. Second, we have collaboratively developed plenoptic or light-field microscopy approaches to image fast physiological processes in 3-D with millisecond precision, and used them to image all the neural activity in small organisms (Prevedel et al., 2014). Third, we have collaboratively developed robotic and microfabricated methods for electrically recording the electrical activity of large numbers of cells in the brain (Kodandaramaiah et al., 2012). Finally, we have developed a set of genetically-encoded reagents known as optogenetic tools, that when expressed in specific neurons, enable their electrical activities to be precisely driven or silenced in response to millisecond timescale pulses of light (Boyden, 2011; Chuong et al., 2014; Klapoetke et al., 2014). In this way we aim to enable the systematic mapping, dynamical observation, and control of complex systems like the brain.

References
    Boyden, E.S. (2011) A history of optogenetics: the development of tools for controlling brain circuits with light, F1000 Biology Reports 3:11.

    Chen, F.*, Tillberg, P.W.*, Boyden, E.S. (2015) Expansion Microscopy, Science 347(6221):543-548. (*, equal contribution)

    Chuong, A. S., Miri, M. L.*, Busskamp, V.*, Matthews, G.A.C.*, Acker, L.C.*, Soresnsen, A.T., Young, A., Klapoetke, N. C., Henninger, M.A., Kodandaramaiah, S.B., Ogawa, M., Ramanlal, S. B., Bandler, R. C., Allen, B. D., Forest, C.R., Chow, B.Y., Han, X., Lin, Y., Tye, K.M., Roska, B., Cardin, J.A., Boyden, E. S. (2014) Noninvasive optical inhibition with a red-shifted microbial rhodopsin, Nature Neuroscience 17:1123-1129. (*, equal contribution)

    Klapoetke, N. C., Murata, Y., Kim S. S., Pulver, S. R., Birdsey-Benson, A., Cho, Y. K., Morimoto, T. K., Chuong, A. S., Carpenter, E. J., Tian, Z., Wang, J., Xie, Y., Yan, Z., Zhang, Y., Chow, B.Y., Surek, B., Melkonian, M., Jayaraman, V., Constantine-Paton, M., Wong, G. K.*, Boyden, E. S.* (2014) Independent Optical Excitation of Distinct Neural Populations, Nature Methods 11:338-346. (* co-corresponding authors)

    Kodandaramaiah, S., Talei Franzesi, G., Chow, B., Boyden, E. S.*, Forest, C.* (2012) Automated whole-cell patch clamp electrophysiology of neurons in vivo, Nature Methods 9:585-587. (* co-corresponding authors)

    Prevedel, R.**, Yoon, Y.-G.**, Hoffman, M., Pak, N., Wetzstein, G., Kato, S., Schrodel, T., Raskar, R., Zimmer, M., Boyden, E. S.*, Vaziri, A. * (2014) Simultaneous whole-animal 3D imaging of neuronal activity using light-field microscopy, Nature Methods 11:727-730. (** equal contribution, * co-corresponding authors)


Edward S. Boyden

MIT Media Lab and McGovern Institute
MIT
Cambridge, MA 02139
Ph: (617) 324-3085
esb@media.mit.edu