Albany 2013: Book of Abstracts
June 11-15 2013
©Adenine Press (2012)
The Peculiarities of Regulation of Yarrowia lipolytica Yeast and Citric Acid Overproduction
The growth of Yarrowia lipolytica yeast as well the biosynthesis of citric acid on rapeseed oil were studied. It was indicated that the initial step of assimilation of rapeseed oil in the yeast Y.lipolytica is their hydrolysis by extracellular lipases with the formation of glycerol and fatty acids, which appear in the medium in the phase of active growth. The concentrations of these metabolites change insignificantly upon further cultivation. Lipase and the key enzymes of glycerol metabolism (glycerol kinase) and the glyoxylate cycle responsible for the metabolism of fatty acids (isocitrate lyase and malate synthase) are induced just at the beginning of the growth phase and remain active in the course of further cultivation. These results, taken together, suggest that glycerol and fatty acids according in the medium do not suppress the metabolism of each other. The fact that glycerol and fatty acids can be consumed simultaneously is of special importance for the development of the efficient regime of oil feeding, Y. lipolytica produced citric acid (175 g/L) with a yield of 150%.
It should be noted that the simultaneous utilization of two different substrates is not typical of microorganisms, which first assimilate one the two available substrates (commonly, a carbohydrate), whereas the assimilation of the other substrate starts only after the first substrate is fully consumed from the medium. Indeed, upon the cultivation of Y. lipolytica on the mixture of glucose and oleic acid the latter substrate began to be utilized only when the concentration of glucose decreased. The glycolytic enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase was induced from the first hours of cultivation and remained at high levels until the exhaustion of glucose in the medium. At the same time, the activities of isocitrate lyase and malate synthase were very low during the metabolism of glucose, but were rapidly induced (approximately in 10 times) after the exhaustion of glucose in the medium. When Y. lipolytica was grown on the mixture of glucose and hexadecane, the dynamics of growth and substrate consumption was typical of the diauxie phenomenon: the utilization of hexadecane began only in several hours after the time when glucose was completely exhausted in the cultivation medium. In this case, the exhaustion of glucose arrested growth and the culture resumed growth only after a lag period. The assay of enzymes showed that the glycolytic enzyme pyruvate dehydrogenase was active during the phase of growth on glucose, whereas the enzymes of the glyoxylate cycle, isocitrate lyase and malate synthase, were active during the phase of growth on hexadecane.
In recent years in the literature there are data that the different sugars produce signals which modify the conformation of certain proteins that, in turn, directly or through a regulatory cascade affect the expression of the genes subject to catabolite repression. These genes are not all controlled by a single set of regulatory proteins (Cho et al. 2009), but there are different circuits of repression for different groups of genes (Gancedo 1990). We will discuss the possible metabolic regulation in the case of Y. lipolytica.
J.M. Gancedo (1998) Yeast carbon catabolite repression. Microbiol Mol Biol Rev 62, 334-361.
Igor G. Morgunov
G.K. Skryabin Institute of Biochemistry and Physiology of Microorganisms RAS