Albany 2015:Book of Abstracts
June 9-13 2015
©Adenine Press (2012)
Forensic bioaffinity-based assay to determine blood sample age
Chemical and biochemical techniques are the main scientific support of criminal investigations and, in subsequent prosecutions, utilized for the analysis of biological traces at crime scenes (Mayntz-Press et al., 2008). Blood is a major contributor to crime investigations because of its genetic material, unique composition of proteins and low molecular compounds present in the circulatory system (Mayntz-Press et al., 2008; Prati et al., 2002). Knowing the age of a blood spot at crime scenes could be significantly important in identifying blood that is relevant to a crime investigation and ruling out that which is not.
To determine the age of the blood spot based on their natural denaturation processes, two blood markers, creatine kinase (CK) and alanine transaminase (ALT) were used. The bioaffinity-driven cascade assay was developed in human serum samples, which underwent the aging process under different environmental conditions for up to 5 days. The mean concentrations of markers were based on their physiological levels present in a healthy adult (Mayntz-Press et al., 2008; Prati et al., 2002; Deuster et al.,). CK and ALT were combined in a biocatalytic cascade composed of two parallel subsystems, as shown in Scheme 1, where segment A represents the CK pathway, while segment B is composed of the ALT pathway. To provide information of the blood sample age with low temporal error for a prolonged period of time, the bioaffinity-based assay was set up in parallel.
By using the high sensitivity of markers with short half-lives together with the stability of markers with longer lives, the response was more reliable. The simplicity and robustness of this system aims to be adapted as a component of a forensic field kit.
D. Prati, E. Taioli, A. Zanella, E. D. Torre, S. Butelli, E. D. Vecchio, L. Vianello, F. Zanuso, F. Mozzi, S. Milani, D. Conte, M. Colombo and G. Sirchia, Ann. Intern. Med., 2002, 137, 1-9.
P. A. Deuster, F. G. O'Connor, K. Kenney, Y. Heled, S. Muldoon, C. Contreras-Sesvold and W. W. Campbell, Creatine Kinase Clinical Considerations: Ethnicity, Gender and Genetics, abstract at the conference: RTO-MP-HFM-181- Human Performance Enhancement for NATO Military Operations (Science, Technology and Ethics).
Department of Chemistry